Science And Technology Initiatives In India- A Profile
1. Over the last 60 years, particularly after Independence, the successive Governments have encouraged Research and Development in several areas of importance and one can say that it is the Government funding that has sustained the growth of Science and Technology in the country. Certain scientific research organisations like CSIR, ICAR, ICMR and DRDO have specialised research laboratories spread all over the country and their achievements and contributions towards the national objective are reported and placed on the table of the Parliament annually. In addition, there are many new Departments, sometimes grouped under a certain Ministry, having specially designed mechanisms to support science and technology in the country, such as: the Ministry of Science and Technology (with Department of Science and Technology, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and Department of Biotechnology); Ministry of Earth Sciences; Departments of Atomic Energy and Space. Many of these Departments also support research organisations either directly or indirectly. Further, there are many research organisations under other Ministries, such as Railways, Power, Irrigation and Industry.
Over a period of time Industry has been encouraged to set up their own
3. Currently, the estimated annual R&D expenditure in the country is of the order of over Rs.20,000 crores, of which the substantial part, perhaps of the order of 80%, is provided by the Government.
4. Since many of these Research Centres work under different administrative Ministries, it is not easy for one to get an overall picture of S&T activities in the country and its absence has been felt in certain situations. In a recent assignment given to the Waterfalls Institute of Technology Transfer by the International S&T Division of the Department of Science and Technology, it was felt that a compilation giving broad outlines of the work carried out in the country as a whole could be assembled in one volume so that it could serve identified useful purposes. In particular, it was felt that many visitors who come to the Ministry of Science and Technology often have incorrect notions that all the activities of Science and Technology in the country are coordinated by this Ministry.
The impact of the advances in Science & Technology in India since
Independence in 1947 has been quite impressive in that it has played a
key role in meaningfully contributing to the changes in the policies of
the Government as a whole, covering Communications, Education, Health
Care, Food Production, Defense, Foreign Exchange Control, Imports &
Exports, Industrial Policy and Transportation to mention a few. This book
therefore focuses on the Initiatives taken in India on Science & Technology
policies and in evolving new measures and mechanisms over a period of
time in the programs being pursued in the different Ministries and Departments.
7. The material assembled here has been taken from many annual reports (upto 2007-08) of different Departments and Ministries. While on the one hand, this will enable accurate information in the compilation, it could result in some data being.