|Annual Report (2003-2004)|
1. Genesis & Objectives
Waterfalls Institute of Technology Transfer (WITT) was founded on 2nd January 1994 with the objective to undertake scientific research in the areas of technology development, transfer, adoption, absorption and upgradation of technology and in particular environment friendly technologies; and thus endeavour to extend the frontiers of knowledge in the areas of applied sciences.
The activities and functions of the Institute in pursuance of the objective will include: collect, analyse, process and package technological information for wider diffusion; organise training for appropriate personnel engaged in the development and transfer of technologies; and assist, arrange or provide consultancy relating to technologies, in particular, newly emerging technologies.
In fulfilling the above objectives and goals, the Institute provides wide range of services, such as Status and Survey Reports, Analytical Projections, Policy Inputs, Training and Training Manuals, Publications and Updates, Technology Demonstrations, Information Packages, Technology Forecast & Assessment, Technology Adoption and Absorption, Technology Upgradation and Diffusion, Technology Profiles, and also advisory services to in-house R&D units in industry and scientific research foundations.
The Institute strives for excellence in Engineering and Technology; New Advances in Medical Applications; Legal Matters concerning Intellectual Property, negotiations & contracts, arbitration, dispute settlement, privatisation, etc; and Information, including technology source, consultancy, institutions, collaborations, case studies, etc. WITT's endeavour is to remain competitive on one side and on the other efficiently diffuse its findings to a large number of executing agencies, Govt departments and international organisations.
The Membership of the Institute mainly consists of Founder Members, Executive Members, and Distinguished Members, the total of these three groups not exceeding 72. In addition there could be Patron and Institutional Members, without voting rights.
The Institute enjoys the whole-hearted support of eminent leading personalities
in the fields of science and technology, law and medical sciences. Lists
of its Founder Members, Executive Members, and Distinguished Members,
as on 31st March 2004, are given on pages 44 to 48.
2. Registration ,Recognition and Approval
After the formation of the Waterfalls Institute of Technology Transfer on 2nd January 1994, the Institute was registered as a non-profit society under the Societies Registration Act of 1860 and Certificate of Registration was obtained on 15th April, 1994.
The Certificate of Registration issued by the Registrar of Societies, Delhi Administration, Delhi bears the number: S-25859 of 1994.
2.2 Recognition as Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation
The Institute was granted recognition initially by the Ministry of Science & Technology (DSIR) for the period 3rd June 1994 to 31st March 1996 and this was extended for further periods of three years at a time. The Ministry has extended the recognition to the Institute recently for a further period of three years, ie, up to 31st March 2005.
The reference number of the communication from DSIR is: 11/304/94-TU-V dated 18 April 2002.
2.3 Approval Under Income Tax Act
The Institute had approached the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance to obtain approval under Section 35(i) (ii) of Income Tax Act so that all financial contributions to Institute are eligible for exemption under the Income Tax Act. The Department of Revenue had issued the approval for the period 3rd June, 1994 to 31st March, 1996 and thereafter the approval had been extended upto 31-3-2002. As per the current provisions of the IT Act, contributions to the Institute are entitled to 125% deduction. The Institute's application for further extension cleared by DG IT(E) Kolkata is receiving attention in the Finance Ministry.
2.4 F C R A
The Institute had applied for registration under Foreign Contribution Regulation Act to the Home Ministry. The Ministry had advised that the Institute may obtain approvals from time to time as and when some contributions are offered to the Institute.
|3. A BRIEF PROJECT PROFILE|
Technology is the key to development. India has recognised the role of technology in economic development and in fact the very first sentence of the Scientific Policy Resolution of March 1958 reads: "The key to national prosperity, apart from the spirit of the people, lies in the modern age, in the effective combination of three factors: Technology, Raw Materials and Capital, of which the first is most important, since the creation and adoption of new technique can in fact, make up for deficiency in natural resources and reduce the demand on capital".
However, unlike science, technology is traded and sold at prices which market can bear, stretched to the maximum price in most of the cases. Since over 95% of the research and development expenditure is invested in the advanced developed countries, they have a hold on technology; often a developing country buyer of a new technology is unable to get the access to the same; in fact even denied access, on some ground or the other. If one finally gets the same, in some cases very high prices and onerous conditions are attached.
In the last few years, access to technologies has become even more difficult, with new regimes of controls imposed on the transfer. Even relatively simpler technologies are not readily available for transfer due to the criteria of dual use; the possibility of a technology being put to uses beyond the purpose for which it was contracted for. Thus, in the present global scenario technology needs in India and many developing countries are still to be met by imports and often with difficulty and on difficult terms.
3.2 Major Areas in the Technology Transfer Domain
Information about availability, sources and services will enable to get
better technology or a technology at more favourable price. New technologies
in the area of biotechnology, new materials, space applications, telecommunications,
etchave made the subject much more of a synthesis of diverse disciplines
brought to bear on a specific issue, product or service. Keeping such
factors in view, the Institute will organise its workforce and programme
in four major areas: Engineering and Technology; Medical Sciences; Legal
Matters; and Information.
While publications and reports arising from the scientific research in these four areas will make their own impact, the Institute will endeavour to excel in the projects undertaken by virtue of its expertise in these four groups. Training and demonstrations are obvious types of projects the Institute will organise. It will also undertake specific projects from agencies on a contractual basis.
3.2.1 Engineering and Technology
The broad areas covered in this group include: Environment Friendly Technologies, Energy Related Technologies, Water & Water Related Problems, Capital Goods Industry and New & Emerging Technologies.
a) A list of Environment Friendly Technologies covering the small and medium industries having lower capital investment and the larger sector dealing with aspects of wastes, recycling, recovery, treatment and disposal can be prepared. Case studies involving their potential for wider use can also be collected and documented, after critically analysing and evaluating their levels of efficiency and potential for improvement. Substitutes for ozone depleting substances and new technologies for them could also be studied.
b) Technologies for energy conservation in the conventional areas of power generation, transmission and utilisation could be collected, analysed and disseminated in a packaged form to suit specific end-users. This can also attempt to introduce newer and faster methods of construction of hydroelectric and thermal power plants. Efficacy and appropriateness of non-conventional energy sources in areas such as hydrogen energy, waves, tides, and energy uses in the transport sector can be a major area of investigation. Technology assessment of energy intensive industrial sectors, such as steel, aluminium and ceramics, can also be studied and international comparisons made and technology gaps identified and quantified to the extent possible.
c) Technology development in water prospecting, water recovery and recycling industries can receive high priority. Drinking water technologies to render available water potable could be pursued. Biotechnology applications of water treatment, pricing of water, legal aspects relating to water sharing and technological solutions in this area could be given a very high priority.
d) Capital goods is a critical input in industrialisation. Trends in advances of capital goods can be monitored and scenarios projected to facilitate appropriate choice consistent with the technology adopted. Source directories of capital goods required in specific industry, such as cement, power equipments, auto industry, paper, aluminium and earthmoving machinery can be prepared and comparative analysis of their utility projected. Attention to enhance the performance of indigenous capital goods manufacture can be projected.
e) Recent advances in the areas, such as biotechnology, new materials, non-conventional energy sources, micro electronics, informatics and ocean development have started transforming the technological scenes very rapidly. Assessment of new technology development and forecasting them to end users to facilitate tie-ups could be given priority
3.2.2 Medical Sciences
Advances in medical sciences have been very impressive in the last decade and many advances made are now getting packaged in new black boxes for transfer.
The recent developments in biotechnology and instrumentation are a major know-how area of wide technology gaps between developed and developing countries. The Institute is hoping to play a lead role in this sector.
a) Hospital Services - Acute shortage of modern hospitals for secondary and tertiary levels of treatment and services is being felt in India and in the countries around. A lot of interest in building such hospitals including many by the NRIs, is therefore opening up opportunities for technology transfer. The Institute can assist to collect information on potential investment and services opportunities and analyse to determine appropriate induction of technologies, in particular equipments, and design the infrastructure to ensure a high level of efficiency in the rendering of services at the hospitals.
b) Health Care - This subject covers a wide area and the Institute can focus attention on a need based manner. Technology Information service will be on the channels to alert recent advances and experiences of other agencies in or outside India, potential areas being: immunisation; cold chain in the transportation link of vaccines; early detection of diseases, like cancer, cardiac problems and diabetic complications; developments of kits for self administration and monitoring of stable conditions; technology transfer for such kits for mass diffusion.
d) Instrumentation - Advances in the area of eletronics, telematics and new materials have enabled miniaturisation of devices, ability to transfer information of large mangnitudes over considerable distances to facilitate diganosis, and opened up opportunities for invasive technique to be more efficiently carried out on live patients. Computer aided search, evaluation and storing and presenting of data have also enormously increased to the extent of prior and external preparations thereby reducing the time needed to perform surgeries even of a very complicated nature. Laser based instruments have widened the scope of combating human suffering and early recovery and their applications have enabled operations of interior ligaments and tissues including those in the cereberal or other vital organs of the human body. The Institute can identify a selected group of instruments needed in laboratories and surgery, and bring out information packages facilitating the choices of institutions and organisations.
3.2.3 Legal Matters
Technology transfer is a matter of a contractual arrangement between the supplier and the acquirer. Negotiations and contracts are therefore a part of every transaction. Disputes do arise due to varied perceptions or due to changed values following changed circumstances during the transfer process. Methods of resolving disputes is therefore an essential feature to be built into all contracts.
a) Intellectual Property - With the conclusion of Uruguay round of negotiations at GATT, a new regime in the area of intellectual property has unfolded. Consequences in India will certainly involve the amendments to the patent law. Other trade related intellectual property issues will also take a more definite shape. Science and technology cooperation, R&D collaborations and new forms of technology transfer will all get a boost, or jolt depending upon the speed at which readjustments will be made in the entire science and technology system and the economy. Collecting data, analysing of the same, interpretation and forecast will be the action areas to evolve new policy inputs in which the Institute can play an active role.
c) Arbitration and Dispute Settlement - Disputes arising in technology transfer contracts are not often reported due to various reasons and this therefore poses difficulties in benefitting from past experiences. The Institute here hopes to establish contact with agencies in different countries and collect decisions of courts and categorise them, and disseminate effectively. Even arbitration takes long time and proves expensive, more so for the medium and small industries. Here, new developments including quick disposal measures and other measures for conciliation are recommended. The Institute could review the efficacy of newer measures and bring them for the benefit of the parties. The Institute can also give its expertise and help solve the disputes by bringing the parties face to face.
d) Privatisation - By the turn of the century, the country will see the entry of private sector in many areas which are currently in the public sector. It will see a sharp decline in the role of public sector particularly where its performance is not satisfactory. The Institute could concentrate on the legal aspects relating to privatisation in the context of emergence of new technologies in the manufacturing and services sector, potential areas for privatization, and subject specific reports can be prepared; as for example services carried out by municipal corporations particularly dealing with urban waste.
In recognition of the role played by consultancy organisations in the field of technology transfer, the Institute will also establish working linkages with them in India and abroad. The Institute can add value to the information it will receive, pack it in suitable forms and deliver the packets to specific users and disseminate them when they are more suitable and needed by many other users.
b) Consultancy - The Institute will use expertise and experience of consultants in analysing the relative advantages of different routes of technologies to produce similar products, and encourage them to share their experience with the Institute in the form of case studies for wider dissemination.
c) Institutions - List of institutions with the names of experts available with them, far beyond those that are available in India, can be prepared so that their expertise could be made available to a wide range of users. The Institute will assist them in entering into suitable tie-ups, and where appropriate starting from R&D stage itself.
d) Collaboration - India has already entered into over 20,000 collaborations since independence, of which over 10,000 are of more recent origin since 1981. This information will be suitably desegregated for quick and effective use, and collaborations failing to take off after approval will be monitored.
Software - India with its good science and technology infrastructure and
a treasure of young talented engineers and scientists, trained at costs
much less compared to developed countries, is facing stiff competition
and protectionist controls and measures imposed on export of software
to them in larger quantity and getting access to the software market in
some countries. The Institute will follow these trends and bring up appropriate
state of the art reports from time to time.
to extend frontiers of knowledge in Science & Technology for self-empowerment
through dissemination of information.
4. Dr. REPORT ON WITT ACTIVITIES
4.1 Dr Raman Memorial Fellowships
Dr P S Raman, one of the Founder Member of the Institute, passed away in March 1994, very soon after the formation of the Institute. In his life, he always encouraged students to attain academic excellence and high professionalism. In his memory, studentships were instituted for undergraduate students to take interest and pursue a subject of interest to the Institute. In view of the limited response to the programme such studentships were discontinued during the year 1997-98.
In order to attract scholars, the Institute in 1996-97 reorganised the scheme and introduced three levels: Scholarships, Associateships and Fellowships for research awards. Later these were reviewed and four levels of scholarships and fellowships are provided for. They are Research Scholarship, Senior Research Scholarship, Senior Research Fellowship and Principal Research Fellowship. These carry annual awards of Rs 25,000/-, Rs 36,000/-, Rs 48,000/- and Rs 60,000/- respectively.
As on 31-03-2004, the Fellowship holders are Dr S Lahiri, Dr Sumita Pal and Ms Swati Gola; Ms Anju Kumari and Ms Sreeja Menon are Senior Research Scholars.
4.2 Research Programmes and Activities
The Institute's research programmes and activities are derived from the project profile. In order to be able to accept and complete assignments from sponsors, some core activities are necessarily carried out which at a given time may not lead to any output of any specific programme currently in progress. However, the preparatory work by the research and analysis group in each of the WISTA being published by the Institute enables the Institute to keep itself updated with current and contemporary developments. In this process the Institute in consultation with potential sponsors, mainly government departments, submits project proposals involving scientific research activities at the Institute. No doubt, some of the proposals do not result in a sponsorship, or get approval after lengthy internal procedures spread over a year or more. All the same, the Institute has chosen to undertake several studies from the sponsors.
The research activities of the Institute are reported in two sections dealing with programmes completed and programmes in progress.
4.2.1 Programmes Completed
i) In the field of medical applications arising from scientific advances, the Institute's focus was on Cancer. The Institute prepared a report on research programmes that could be undertaken in a newly established cancer research centre within a specific financial allocation in a year. This was based on review of activities in many other centres in India and abroad as well as visits to research centres in India and organising an interactive meeting.
ii) The Institute organised a study on Indian Systems of Medicine in the Treatment of Cancer. It collected state-of-the-art papers from selected experts in the different fields such as Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Unani. These papers were presented in a specially organised seminar and thoroughly discussed. The proceedings of the seminar were brought out as a publication of the Institute.
iii) The Institute also organised a seminar on Radio Nuclide Therapy in the Treatment of Cancer, focusing on recent scientific advances in the field. Here also experts from different centres all over the country contributed state of the art papers which were discussed in the seminar.
iv) In the field of Renewable Energy, an important aspect of environment friendly technologies, the Institute has made significant contribution in evolving curriculum in teaching in this discipline at graduate and postgraduate levels. In an assignment from GTZ (Germany), the Institute convened two international meetings in New Delhi in 1995 and 1996. The Institute selected resource persons from UK, Australia and Germany as well as participants from Bangladesh, Nepal, India and Sri Lanka. The Institute staff also visited centres in all these countries and prepared background documentation for the two seminars, each one of a week's duration. Based on the discussions, the background documentation was reviewed. The results of this exercise were published as a book with the additional support from the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Govt. of India and widely distributed to the institutions in the participating four countries.
v) The Institute undertook the assessment of technology status in four countries of the Asia Pacific Region, through the sponsorship from UN-APCTT. Based on desk study, interaction with their Embassies in Delhi, correspondence with leading centres in the respective countries, supplemented with visits to some of the countries and regional UN offices, the Institute assembled technology status reports on Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Kazakhstan and the Philippines. These reports have been very well received and appreciated by the sponsors and other Government departments. The Institute alsopublished a brochure on the study of technology profiles and distributed it extensively.
vi) The Institute prepared a report on behalf of the Indian National Science Academy, covering the role of scientific and technological developments in meeting the challenges of Human Settlements in the 21st Century. This report formed the basis of India's input on scientific aspects to the City Summit held in Istanbul in June 1996.
vii) The Institute prepared a report for UN-ESCAP on Technology Flows To and From the Countries of the Asia Pacific Region, as part of their studies covering the region. This report was presented by ESCAP in an international meeting organised by them in 1997 where similar reports of other countries prepared by them were presented and discussed.
viii) The Institute prepared and commissioned several papers on Emerging Aspects of Intellectual Property in the context of India becoming a member of WTO. It participated in important meetings convened by the Government and later organised a special workshop and discussed some of the newer forms of intellectual property protection. The papers presented with the discussions thereon were brought out as a book by the Institute; it is one of the landmark publications on the topic.
ix) The Institute has prepared a Directory of R&D work in the country covering water supply and sanitation. The report submitted incorporates modifications in the light of the observations from the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment, Govt. of India.
x) The Institute completed the work in organising an Awareness Programme on Eco-mark. The Institute prepared a report on this meeting and framed three project outlines and had submitted the same to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India, for funding; two were approved for further study by the Institute.
xi) The Department of Biotechnology had assigned the task of preparing a report on Teaching and Training Intellectual Property to Biotechnologists. The work involved compiling data from different countries as special target groups and their areas of interest in different aspects of IPR. The study also identified the specific programmes being followed in leading institutions in different parts of the world. The terms of reference also included identifying institutions in India where such programmes can be started. A survey of the current status in the country was carried out. The project report was submitted by end of May 1998.
xii) The Institute has prepared a draft report on the measures adopted by other countries to accelerate their technology exports. This has dealt in particular with a few countries like Japan, Korea, Australia and UK and compared them with the measures adopted in India. The report was finalised after an evaluation committee meeting at the Ministry.
xiii) Based on the discussions in the Science Advisory Committee of the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment, the Institute had commenced to bring out a WISTA: `Urbo-Tech', featuring new and emerging technologies for urban development. It was expected that data on technological developments in this field would be of interest to Ministry of Urban Affairs. However, since sponsorship could not be obtained, this publication has been stopped, the last issue being dated Jan 2000.
xiv) The Institute is interacting with the Ministry of Law, Govt. of India, and the Department of Indian Systems of Medicine. Both are interested in the subject of intellectual property and have sought inputs from the Institute. Law Ministry has invited the Institute to be a member of their panel to examine provisions of law to ensure compliance with the TRIPS and to examine provisions on Trade Secrets. The Institute has submitted critical inputs to the working groups set up on Intellectual Property under the Chairmanship of Secretary Law, Govt. of India. The final report of the Ministry has already been submitted.
xv) The Institute received approval for bringing out the proceedings of the workshop it had organised on Awareness of Ecomark Programme. This work involved updating the material prepared and also incorporating the points and discussion at the workshop. The work on the book was completed in April 2000 and released in July 2000.
xvi) The Institute was asked by the Ministry of Environment and Forests to submit proposals for funding on two topics: (i) Estimation of Groundwater Contamination due to Hazardous Chemicals and Wastes; and (ii) Abandoned Landfills. The Institute submitted three project proposals on the above subject. One of the proposals titled: Current Status of Instrumentation on the Estimation of Groundwater Contamination has been approved and the proposal will receive fund from WHO. A draft report prepared was discussed in an interactive meeting held in December 1999 and the final report was submitted to Ministry. The Ministry conveyed its approval of the study to the WHO who funded the project.
xvii) The Ministry of Science & Technology, Govt. of India, had assigned project of analysing Emerging Issues in the Domain of Intellectual Property, in particular Trade Secrets, Trademarks and Designs. Designs and Trademarks are protected by specific statutes in the country, but there is no specific Act covering Trade Secrets. In the context of TRIPS all the three are important. The focus was to analyse areas that will influence technology management. A draft report presented to the Ministry was discussed in a monitoring committee meeting in March 2000. The revised report was submitted in 2000 and the work is completed.
xviii) The Institute submitted a proposal to the Department of Biotechnology on analysing emerging issues in IPR in Biotechnology. The Department of Biotechnology had conveyed its approval. This programme involved preparing a state of the art paper on five topics: (i) Patentability in Biotechnology; (ii) Plant Varieties Protection; (iii) Patenting Microorganisms; (iv) Broad Patenting in Biotechnology; and (v) Drugs and Pharmaceuticals. A draft report was submitted to the Ministry and an interacting meeting to discuss the report was held at the Institute in January, 2000. On the basis of the discussion a finalised report was submitted to the Ministry completing a very important study.
xix) The Institute had submitted two proposals to the Ministry of Science and Technology, covering: Valuation of Intellectual Property and Case Study on Trade Secrets. The Ministry has approved both these proposals combining them as one proposal in two parts. The work on this proposed project commenced from April 1999. The Institute has assembled extensive information collected from a very extensive network and has classified it to fit with the different sections of the report. A draft report of the cases relating to trade secrets was assembled. The segment relating to Valuation of Intellectual Property was completed and the report framed. The draft reports were submitted to the Ministry in May 2000 and the Ministry convened a monitoring committee meeting in September 2000. On the basis of the observations a final report in two parts was submitted.
xx) The Ministry of Science & Technology, Govt. of India, had assigned a project of compiling a Compendium of Cases in Intellectual Property (patents) which will be of special interest in science and technology. The Institute corresponded with leading law firms in many countries as well as contacted the distinguished members of the Society in other countries. The Institute submitted the report in January 1999 and this was discussed in a monitoring committee meeting and the final report submitted.
On the basis of a project proposal titled "Examining Current Concerns
and Intellectual Property Rights for Biotechnology Application",
the Departmentof Biotechnology assigned the work to WITT. There are ten
items included in the study. They are:
The complete reports were assembled in four parts and submitted to DBT in March 2002. In addition a summary report was also prepared and submitted. The summary report is available on line in the website of the Institute.
The Department of Science & Technology (DST) has commissioned WITT
to study the Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector to assess their S&T
work and their utilisation. WITT presented the report to DST in January
4.2.2 Programmes in Progress
a) Programme in the Area of Medical Science
The Institute is pursuing the activities relating to work on preparation
of Directory of Medical Services, Privatisation of Medical and Health
Care, and Medico-Legal Problems in the Context of New Development in DNA
Evidence and preparation of state of the art reports based on its specialisation
in the IPR field. Specific projects will be framed depending on sponsorship
of the work.
The Institute is publishing a WISTA on Intellectual Property regularly
as a bimonthly. The Research and Analysis Team prepares state of the art
papers on several items which are presented in the seminars and workshops
held in the country; these are published in different issues of the WISTA
as Special Features. The Ministry of Science & Technology (DSIR) is
providing support to this WISTA as a bimonthly and the number of copies
printed has been increased to 2000 to cover all recognised In-house R&D
Units in Industry and privately funded Scientific and Industrial Research
The Department of Science and Technology (DST) assigned a study to the Institute to examine the achievements of in-house Science & Technology programme carried out by certain Economic Ministries/Departments arising from the Plan allocation for S&T to the departments. Two parts of this study were to focus on (i) the Power Sector and (ii) Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector. The work relating to power sector was duly completed and report submitted in March 2003.
work in the second sector was also completed satisfactorily and the report
submitted in January 2004.
The first book of the Institute "Newer Forms of Intellectual Property
Protection' was published in May 1995. This was in fact the outcome of
the workshop the Institute had organised, sponsored by the Centre for
Technology Development, Bangalore and co-sponsored by the Associated Chambers
of Commerce and Industry and held at the Asian & Pacific Centre for
Transfer of Technology. This book contains all the papers presented at
the workshop, the statements made at the inaugural session as well as
the questions and comments that arose during the discussion. The book
also contains the full text of the TRIPS agreement. Complementary copies
of the book were sent to members of the Institute and the authors of the
various papers presented therein. In bringing out the book the Department
of Electronics, Government of India, provided partial financial support.
Several copies of the book have been sold and some copies are still available.
(f) In the domain of Service law, the Institute collaborated in the publication of the revised edition of "Guiding Principles in the Decisions of Service Law". This book was released in an impressive function by Justice K G Balakrishnan, Judge Supreme Court of India in November 2003, in the presence of Hon'ble Justice Jaganadha Rao, Chairman Law Commission of India. This Book is also published by M/s Bahri Brothers.
ii) A Report for Indo-Canada Cooperation Office on Intellectual Property in Private Sector and Governance in October 1995.
iii) A Report on Science & Technology to Meet the Human Settlement Challenges in the 21st Century to INSA in October 1995.
A Report on Promotion of Technology Flows of India, To and From Other
Countries of Asia & Pacific, prepared for UN-ESCAP in February 1996.
vi) In order to alert potential users about the availability of such reports and to indicate the capabilities of WITT, a brochure related to the studies completed was brought out. Copies of the brochure have been distributed to many interested organisations and agencies.
vii) The Institute had been commissioned by the Ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment, Govt of India, to prepare a Compendium of R&D in the Field of Water Supply, Sanitation, Solid Waste Management and Storm Water Drainage. Based on the material collected, the Institute prepared a draft report of nearly 200 pages for the Ministry. The Ministry had suggested some modifications which were incorporated and the final report has been submitted.
viii) In connection with the programme that the Institute had organised on Eco-Mark, the Institute has prepared and put together a very good collection of background papers. This compilation has been very well appreciated by the participants. The Institute has been commissioned to bring out the proceedings with the support from the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.
A report on 101 cases in the field of Intellectual Property (Patents)
of interest to scientists and engineers was compiled on sponsorship from
the Ministry of Science and Technology. The background was that following
India joining the WTO, the future will see India revising the Patent Act
to be in conformity with the TRIPS. So it will be useful for our scientists
to know how the court will decide patent cases in future. In compiling
the cases, the Institute had assembled about 150 cases from many countries
and in particular USA, UK, Australia and European countries. All cases
were summarised under the headings: Issues involved, facts of the case,
decisions of courts and Institute's observations. The draft report containing
105 cases were submitted to the Ministry. The final report taking into
account the observations at the monitoring committee meeting, was submitted
completing the project.
xiv) The Institute compiled over 100 cases recently decided on Trade Secret Law, particularly in the USA. This compilation was submitted to DSIR in December, 2000. The cases are grouped in 11 major headings: what can be a Trade Secret; what is not a Trade Secret; measure to ensure secrecy; misappropriation; restriction and covenant; inevitable disclosure; injunction; damages; jurisdiction; liability and other (legal aspects).
xv) The Institute completed a report titled "Valuation of Intellectual Property Rights in Technology Management" and submitted the same in December, 2000 to DSIR. This report examines the concepts relating to intangible assets and typical country perceptions in many countries. It identifies a large number of practical situations in which valuation of Intellectual Property will be of special interest. It also provides the recent theoretical economic models in the valuation of IPR.
(xvi) The study completed under the project "Examining Current Concerns on Intellectual Property Rights for Biotechnology Applications", was grouped into four parts and submitted to the DBT in March 2002.
Part I : Evolving a Sui Generis System for Protection in Biotechnology;
Part II: IPR Protection, Concerns in Medicinal Plants;
Part IV: Patenting Microorganisms in the Growth and Competitiveness of
Indian Industry; and
In addition a summary report based on the discussions at an interactive meeting held on 7th February 2002 was also prepared. This report is available on line at the website www.witts.org.
(xvii) During the workshops on Enhancing Awareness of Intellectual Property for the Export Oriented Industries, the Institute assembled lecture material on four topics and presented copies of the compilation to all participants. The four topics were: Patenting an Invention; Technology Upgradation and Current Patents; Valuation of Patents; and Infringement and Damages. The illustrative examples in the six workshops were from the specific industry sectors focussed at a workshop. These were retained as six reports and combined into a new report for use at the feedback meeting held during the year.
(xviii) The report on "In-House S&T in the Power Sector and Utilisation of Their Results" was submitted in March 2003.
WITT collected data on the existing facilities in the R&D sectors of NTPC, NHPC, POWERGRID & BHEL. The report inter alia had concluded: "The R&D achievements in the Power Sector are very disappointing. The R&D investments are at threshold level to make an impact. The Ministry of Power funds the Central Power Research Institute, most of which are used in building infrastructure for testing. The Public Sector undertakings under the Ministry of Power have neither motivation nor pressure to take up R&D. BHEL which had made a good start is not getting support for R&D from the Power Ministry. BHEL's R&D expenditure has been of the order of 1.2 to 1.4% of the turnover. Major global players spend about 4-6% of the turnover on R&D. In this scenario, India will be dependent on R&D from Europe or USA for many years to come.
b) New Report
The report on "In-House S&T in the Petroleum and Natural Gas and Utilisation of Their Results" was submitted in January 2004. The report has twelve chapters,covering Methodology, Background to the Petroleum Sector, PSU's Achievements, R&D at Universities and Academic Institutions, R&D at Research Institutions, ONGC R&D Institute, OIL Industry Development Board, Value of Output Based on IPR, Technology Absorption and Adaptation.
WITT had collected information from most of the Public Sector Undertakings in the sector and had discussion with their representatives. In fact OIDB is a major agency that supports R&D in their sector and it appears they should support activities in absorption of imported technology as well as in assisting the marketing of their R&D outputs. The report has observed: Most of the organisations engaged in R&D in the Petroleum and Natural Gas sector have not attempted to commercially value their output; perhaps the Ministry should set up a system providing promotional measures to encourage their evaluation and move towards marketing the results".
The Institute participated in several events during the year 2003-2004
and presented papers or lectures based on its research work in specialised
areas. Details of the various events are given in section 4.6.
4.6 Participation in Conferences and Lecture Presentations
4.8 Professional & Technical Engagement with Organisations
a) NISCOM (National Institute of Science Communication), a constituent establishment of CSIR, publishes a periodical titled "Journal of Intellectual Property Rights". They had invited Chairman WITT to be a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal for the period January 2002 to December 2004. During the year, several papers for publication in this journal were reviewed and recommendations provided.
b) The Ministry of Science & Technology (DSIR) is funding the IIFT to bring out a quarterly news update on Technology Exports. Chairman WITT continues to be a member of the Editorial Board of this publication.
c) Sitaram Bhartia Research Centre is a society registered in Kolkata and having its Research Centre at Delhi. Dr Gopinath, a distinguished member of WITT, is the President of the Research Centre. Chairman WITT is a member of its Governing Council.
d) WIPO Arbitration Panel : World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) in Geneva has established an arbitration centre which administers four dispute resolution procedures, namely: Mediation, Arbitration, Expedited Arbitration and Mediation followed in the absence of a settlement by Arbitration. This centre needs experts to work for their panels in administering their services. Chairman WITT is included in their list of mediators and arbitrators.
e) Chairman WITT was a member of a select panel to review and make modifications in operational arrangement in the working of Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre. Chairman continues to be a Member of their Governing Council.
4.9 Workshops & Training Programmes
During the year, nine workshops were organised, six were sponsored by
DSIR, two by the All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) and
one by WITT in which delegates paid fees to participate in the Workshop.
Two Workshops on Enhancing Awareness of Intellectual Property in Technical
Institutions were arranged in cooperation with one technical institute
in the south and one in the north as follows:
4.10 Publication of WISTA
WISTA is a new initiative of Waterfalls Institute of Technology Transfer
to provide up-to-date capsules of information on a variety of subjects
of current interest. It envisages that such updates will widen the horizon
and open up new VISTAs for application of Science and Technology through
innovative skills of experts, particularly engineers, scientists, researchers,
doctors and lawyers.
Another subject on which update of WISTA is being prepared is Innovation.
The Institute brought out the first issue of WISTA : Innovation in January
1997 and had received messages of good wishes from the offices of the
Vice President of India, the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Minister of State
for Planning and Programme Implementation and Science & Technology
and Shri Shivraj Patil, former Minister of Science & Technology. In
addition, the three Secretaries in the Departments of Science & Technology,
Scientific and Industrial Research, and Biotechnology had also conveyed
their best wishes. The second issue of WISTA - Innovation, published in
April 1997, carried messages of appreciation from Dr S Varadarajan, President
INSA, and the Secretary of the Ministry of Environment and Forests and
the Secretary Department of Electronics. Messages of good wishes and congratulations
have come from many Eminent Scientists and Directors of CSIR and DRDO
A mailing list has been specially prepared covering several NGOs, research
institutes and industrial units in the country.
On a sponsorship from the Department of Biotechnology, the Institute launched a new WISTA specially designed to meet the needs of Scientists and Technologists in the field of Biotechnology. The inaugural issue was published in February 2000 and it carried messages from the Hon’ble Union Minister Dr Murli Manohar Joshi, Minister for Human Resource Development and Science & Technology; Hon’ble Union Minister Dr P R Kumaramangalam, Minister for Power; Dr Manju Sharma, Secretary, Department of Biotechnology; Mr Vishwanath Anand, Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests; Dr R A Mashelkar, Secretary DSIR and Director General CSIR; and Prof V S Ramamurthy, Secretary Department of Science and Technology.
This WISTA carries specific information in areas such as: Scan Around the Globe, Watchout IPR, In Focus, Strategic Alliances, Legal Scene, Experts Converge and Knowledge Spreads. It also carries a “Perspective” and a “Special Feature”.
A mailing list has been specially prepared to include all institutions in the country specialising in Biotechnology, as well as other leading educational institutions and universities.
Initial contract with the Department of Biotechnology is to bring out six bimonthly issues over a year. Thereafter the Department had conveyed its approval for two more years and now it is being continued.
Recent issues published in 2003-2004 are: No.20 in April 2003, No.21 in June 2003, No.22 in August 2003, No.23 in October 2003, No.24 in December 2003 and No.25 in February 2004.
IPR for Industry
c) The seventh niche area for Wista was on Ecomark. Only six bimonthy issues were published starting in April 1999 and sixth issue was published in March 2000.
The Institute is looking forward to preparing such Wistas in newer emerging areas of importance on the basis of sponsorship.
4.11 Linkages with Other Organisations
The Institute has established working linkages with several organisations within and outside the country to further the objectives it has set to achieve. These organisations are listed below. Many of these organisations have been sending their publications to the Institute and the Institute is very thankful to them.
The Institute hosted a Website with effect from 1-1-2000. homepage depicts
the Waterfalls and the main features of the activities of the Institute.
The Hyperlinks provide access to notable details about the Institute and
the results of its activities. The Website was throughly revised and enlarged.
WISTA is now available online and it is hoped that many other organisations
can benefit from the work carried out by the Institute.
A seperate and distinctive Website has been hosted for focussing on the
Environment Audit specialisation of the Institute. It provides all the
Environment Audit issues published by the Institute as well as monthly
inputs to the MoEF.
The Institute had carried forward an amount of Rs 2,30,509/- being the excess of income over expenditure during the year 1994-95. During the subsequent years 1995-96, 1996-97, 1997-98, 1998-99, 1999-2000, 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003 as well the Institute had income in excess of expenditure. Thus it had assets worth Rs 61,32,494/- at the end of the last financial year. During the year 2003-2004 the Institute had a satisfactory year in realising all amounts due to it and at the end of the year had an excess of income over expenditure of Rs 3,82,707/-.
The balance sheet as on 31st March, 2003 as per the audited statement is presented below.
BALANCE SHEET AS AT 31ST MARCH , 2004
6.1 Governing Council
During the period under report, Governing Council of WITT held two meeting, on 15 September 2003, and 2 October 2003.
The Institute is functioning from J-29, South Extension Part-I,
At this stage of development and growth of the Institute resources through projects alone can sustain staff. Even so some purely temporary adjustments were made in engaging the services of a few essential persons, and as far as possible external services were also availed of. Research Fellows and Research Scholars do contribute effectively.
As on 31-03-2004, ten persons at different levels were working for the Institute on monthly honorarium. For accounting and auditing, services of a trained person were being availed of as and when needed. Five experts continue to be Senior Advisor/Advisors of the Institute in honorary capacity or with ad hoc honorarium.
6.4 Other Services
Other services, such as travel/air booking, photography, conference kits and banners, catering, courier, printing, maintenance, etc were availed of from external sources as and when needed.
DR K V SWAMINATHAN
MRS LAKSHMI SWAMINATHAN
DR K V VENKATESAN
DR (MRS) JAYANTHI VENKATESAN
DR D H SHETE
DR L M PANDE
MR K K MEHTA
MR K RAMANA SUNDARAM
MR C D KHURANA
MR D V S SHARMA
DR LEELA SRINIVAS
DR A SRIDHARAN
DR S RAMESH
MR C S KRISHNASWAMY
MR S S VENKATESAN
MR R S SREENIVAS
DR M B RAO
1. PROF M G K MENON